Reserved Characters in HTML (HTML ISO-8859-1 Reference)

Some characters are reserved in HTML and XHTML. For example, you cannot use the greater than or less than signs within your text because the browser could mistake them for markup.

HTML and XHTML processors must support the five special characters listed in the table below:

Character Entity Number Entity Name Description
" quotation mark
' (does not work in IE) apostrophe
& & & ampersand
< < &lt; less-than
> > &gt; greater-than

Note: Entity names are case sensitive!

ISO 8859-1 Symbols

Character Entity Number Entity Name Description
&nbsp; non-breaking space
¡ ¡ &iexcl; inverted exclamation mark
¢ ¢ &cent; cent
£ £ &pound; pound
¤ ¤ &curren; currency
¥ ¥ &yen; yen
¦ ¦ &brvbar; broken vertical bar
§ § &sect; section
¨ ¨ &uml; spacing diaeresis
© © &copy; copyright
ª ª &ordf; feminine ordinal indicator
« « &laquo; angle quotation mark (left)
¬ ¬ &not; negation
­ &shy; soft hyphen
® ® &reg; registered trademark
¯ ¯ &macr; spacing macron
° ° &deg; degree
± ± &plusmn; plus-or-minus
² ² &sup2; superscript 2
³ ³ &sup3; superscript 3
´ ´ &acute; spacing acute
µ µ &micro; micro
&para; paragraph
· · &middot; middle dot
¸ ¸ &cedil; spacing cedilla
¹ ¹ &sup1; superscript 1
º º &ordm; masculine ordinal indicator
» » &raquo; angle quotation mark (right)
¼ ¼ &frac14; fraction 1/4
½ ½ &frac12; fraction 1/2
¾ ¾ &frac34; fraction 3/4
¿ ¿ &iquest; inverted question mark
× × &times; multiplication
÷ ÷ &divide; division

ISO 8859-1 Characters

Character Entity Number Entity Name Description
À À &Agrave; capital a, grave accent
Á Á &Aacute; capital a, acute accent
  &Acirc; capital a, circumflex accent
à à &Atilde; capital a, tilde
Ä Ä &Auml; capital a, umlaut mark
Å Å &Aring; capital a, ring
Æ Æ &AElig; capital ae
Ç Ç &Ccedil; capital c, cedilla
È È &Egrave; capital e, grave accent
É É &Eacute; capital e, acute accent
Ê Ê &Ecirc; capital e, circumflex accent
Ë Ë &Euml; capital e, umlaut mark
Ì Ì &Igrave; capital i, grave accent
Í Í &Iacute; capital i, acute accent
Î Î &Icirc; capital i, circumflex accent
Ï Ï &Iuml; capital i, umlaut mark
Ð Ð &ETH; capital eth, Icelandic
Ñ Ñ &Ntilde; capital n, tilde
Ò Ò &Ograve; capital o, grave accent
Ó Ó &Oacute; capital o, acute accent
Ô Ô &Ocirc; capital o, circumflex accent
Õ Õ &Otilde; capital o, tilde
Ö Ö &Ouml; capital o, umlaut mark
Ø Ø &Oslash; capital o, slash
Ù Ù &Ugrave; capital u, grave accent
Ú Ú &Uacute; capital u, acute accent
Û Û &Ucirc; capital u, circumflex accent
Ü Ü &Uuml; capital u, umlaut mark
Ý Ý &Yacute; capital y, acute accent
Þ Þ &THORN; capital THORN, Icelandic
ß ß &szlig; small sharp s, German
à à &agrave; small a, grave accent
á á &aacute; small a, acute accent
â â &acirc; small a, circumflex accent
ã ã &atilde; small a, tilde
ä ä &auml; small a, umlaut mark
å å &aring; small a, ring
æ æ &aelig; small ae
ç ç &ccedil; small c, cedilla
è è &egrave; small e, grave accent
é é &eacute; small e, acute accent
ê ê &ecirc; small e, circumflex accent
ë ë &euml; small e, umlaut mark
ì ì &igrave; small i, grave accent
í í &iacute; small i, acute accent
î î &icirc; small i, circumflex accent
ï ï &iuml; small i, umlaut mark
ð ð &eth; small eth, Icelandic
ñ ñ &ntilde; small n, tilde
ò ò &ograve; small o, grave accent
ó ó &oacute; small o, acute accent
ô ô &ocirc; small o, circumflex accent
õ õ &otilde; small o, tilde
ö ö &ouml; small o, umlaut mark
ø ø &oslash; small o, slash
ù ù &ugrave; small u, grave accent
ú ú &uacute; small u, acute accent
û û &ucirc; small u, circumflex accent
ü ü &uuml; small u, umlaut mark
ý ý &yacute; small y, acute accent
þ þ &thorn; small thorn, Icelandic
ÿ ÿ &yuml; small y, umlaut mark


ISO-8859-1 is the default character set in most browsers.

The first 128 characters of ISO-8859-1 is the original ASCII character-set (the numbers from 0-9, the uppercase and lowercase English alphabet, and some special characters).

The higher part of ISO-8859-1 (codes from 160-255) contains the characters used in Western European countries and some commonly used special characters.

Entities are used to implement reserved characters or to express characters that cannot easily be entered with the keyboard.

From source:

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